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Textile Testing Equipments » Physical Testing Instruments » Random Tumble Pilling Tester

Random Tumble Pilling Tester

SCOPE :
1. This test method covers the determination of resistance to the formation of pills and other related surface changes on textile fabrics. The method utilizes the Random Tumble Pilling Tester. The procedure is generally applicable to all types of woven and knitted apparel fabrics.
Note:- For other methods of testing the pilling resistance of textiles, refer to the following ASTM methods: D3511 test for Pilling Resistance and Other Related Surface Changes of Textile Fabrics: Brush Pilling Tester Method. D3514 Test for Resistance of Apparel Fabrics to Pilling (Elastomeric Pad Method) For directions covering the measurement of resistance to pilling by the Appearance Retention Tester, refer to Method D 1375 in the 1973 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 24. For direction covering the measurement of resistance to pilling by the Inflated Diaphragm Tester and the Reciprocating Table Tester, Refer to Method D 1375 in the 1966 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 24.
2. Some fabrics that have been treated with a silicone resin cannot be satisfactorily tested by this procedure because the silicone resin appears to rub off on the cork liners in the test chamber and to cause erroneously low results.
3. This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of who ever uses this standard to consult and establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
REFERENCED DOCUMENTS :
ASTM Standards:           D123 Terminology Relating to Textiles.
                                    D1776 Practice for Conditioning Textiles for Testing.
                                    F 104 Classification System for Nonmetallic Basket Materials.
DEFINITIONS :
1. Fuzz : untangled fibre ends that protrude from the surface of a yarn of fabric.
2. Pilling resistance : resistance to the formations pills on a textile fabric.
3. Pills : Bunches or balls of tangled fibers that are held to the surface of a fabric by one or more fibers.
4. For definitions of other textile terms used in this method, refer to Terminology D123.
SUMMARY OF TEST METHOD :
Pilling and other changes in surface appearance, such as fuzzing, that occur in normal wear are simulated on a laboratory testing machine. Fabrics are caused to form typical pills by a random rubbing motion produced by tumbling specimens in a cylindrical test chamber lined with a mildly abrasive material. In order to form pills that resemble those produced in actual wear in appearance and structure, small amounts of short length cotton fiber (gray in color) are added to each test chamber with the specimens. The degree of fabric pilling is evaluated by comparison of the tested specimens with visual standards that may be actual fabrics or photographs of fabrics or photographs of fabrics, showing a range of piling resistance. The observed resistance to pilling is reported on an arbitrary scale ranging from No.5 (no pilling) to No.1 (very severe pilling).
USES AND SIGNIFICANCE :
1. The pilling of textile fabrics is very complex property because it is affected by many factors, such as type of fiber of blend, fiber dimensions, yarn and fabric construction, and fabric-finishing treatments. This method of testing fabrics for resistance to pilling is not recommended for acceptance testing of commercial shipment, because the between-laboratory precision is poor. In some cases the purchaser and the supplier may have to test a commercial shipment of one or more specific materials by the best available method, even though the method has not been recommended for acceptance testing of commercial shipments. In such a case, if there is a disagreement arising form differences in values reported by the purchaser and the supplier when using this method or acceptance testing, the statistical bias, if any, between the laboratory of the purchaser and the laboratory of the supplier should be determined with each comparison being based on testing specimens randomly drawn from one sample of material of the type being evaluated.
2. The pilling resistance of a specific fabric in actual wear varies with individual wearers and general conditions of use. As a consequence, it can be expected that garments of the same fabric will show a fairly wide pilling resistance spectrum after wear and much greater variation in wear that in replicate fabric specimens subjected to controlled laboratory tests. This experience should be borne in mind when adopting levels of acceptability for any series of standards.
3. Finishes and fabric surface changes may exert a large effect on pilling. Therefore with some fabrics, it may be desirable to test before as well as after laundering or dry cleaning, or both.
4. Pills observed in worn garments vary appreciably in size and appearance, the latter depending particularly in the presence of lint and degree of color contrast, factors that are not evaluated when pilling is rated solely on the number of pills. The development of pills may be accompanied by other surface phenomena such as loss of cover, color change, or the development of fuzz. Since the overall acceptability of a specific fabric is dependent of both the characteristics of the pills and the other factors affecting surface appearance, it is considered desirable that fabrics tested in the laboratory be evaluated subjectively with regard to their acceptability and not rated solely on the number of pills developed. A series of standards, based on graduated degrees of surface change of the fabric type being tested, may be set up to provide a basis for subjective ratings. The visual standards are most advantageous when the laboratory test specimens correlate closely in appearance with worn garments, that is, show similar ratio of pills to fuzz, etc. Counting the pills and weighting their number with respect to their size and contrast, as a combined measure of pilling resistance is not recommended because of the excessive time required for counting, sizing, and calculation.
APPARATUS, REAGENTS, AND MATERIALS :
1. Random Tumble Pilling Tester, including air injection device with the following accessories.
a) Cork Cylinder Liners, about 146mm (5¾ in.) wide by 452mm (17 13/16 in.) long cut from 1.5-mm ( 1/16 –in.) thick flat sheets of Type P2117A material conforming to Specification F104. The original surface of the liner produced by slicing the material should be used without any further treatment such as sanding.
b) Vacuum Cleaner, with brush attachment.
c) Rubber Adhesive, No.01-9094.
d) Plastic Bottle, for applying cement.
e) Air Injection Device to give 21-kPa (3-psi) air pressure in each test chamber.
2. Cotton Sliver, 5300 tex (75 grain), fine cotton. Egyptian Karnak, or equivalent. Cotton dyed to gray shade before carding using 0.25% Pontamine Fast Black E (Based on weight of cotton ) or equivalent, at 820 C (1800 F for 60 min rinsed and oven – dried.
3. Methyl Ethyl Ketone, technical, for diluting the rubber adhesive.
4. Standard pilling Test Fabric, having and established pilling resistance rating for checking machine performance.
5. Fabric Rating Standards – A series of tested specimen of a specific fabric type which show degrees of pilling or both, for the fabric to be tested. Store the fabric rating standards and handle them under conditions that will preserve their original form and appearance. Mounting with thick cardboard framing around the specimens is recommended.
6. Photographic Rating Standards – A set of five photographs 105 mm square numbered 1 to 5 illustrating varying degrees of pilling from “very severe pilling” t “no pilling”.
7. Apparatus for Fabric Evaluation –Facilities for illumination and simultaneous viewing of test specimen and fabric or photograph rating standards.
8. Facilities for Laundering samples.
9. Facilities for Drycleaning samples.
SAMPLING :
1. Take a lot sample as directed in the applicable material specification, or as agreed upon by the purchaser and seller. In the absence of such a specification or other agreement, take a laboratory sample as directed.
2. If sampling from rolls or pieces of woven or warp knits fabric in the lot sample, cut at least one laboratory sample the full width of the fabric and at least 305 mm (1ft) along the selvedge. From circular knit fabrics cut a band at least 305mm wide.
3. If sample from garments, take fabric samples as agreed upon by all interested parties.
SELECTION AND PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS :
1. Cut three specimens spaced evenly across the width on the laboratory sample. Unless otherwise specified, do not take specimens near the selvedge than one tenth the width of the fabric.
2. Cut specimens of woven or knit fabrics which are approximately 105mm (43/15 in.) square, at approximately 450 angle to the length and width directions in woven fabrics or to wale and course directions for knitted fabrics. Mark replicate specimens in one corner on the face of the fabric with the appropriate number 1,2 and 3. Specimens should be staggered in such a manner that no two specimens contain the same year.
3. If loosely woven specimens fray when prepared in the above manner, cut the specimens with sides parallel to the warp and filling and ravel them to approximately 400 by 100mm(4 by 4 in.).
4. Seal the edges of all specimens to a width not exceeding 3.2 (1/3 in.) on the face of the fabric with diluted rubber adhesive (2 parts adhesive to 1 part methyl ethyl ketone). Hang the specimens on racks until dry and in any case for at least 2 hr.
5. If tests are to be made after laundering or dry cleaning samples should be washed or dry cleaned before cutting specimens using conditions appropriate for the fabric end use or conditions agreed upon by all interested parties.
CONDITIONING :
Bring the specimen and cork liners to moisture equilibrium for testing in the standards atmosphere for testing textiles as directed in Practice D 1776.
PROCEDURE :
1. Make all tests on conditioned specimens in the standard atmosphere for testing textiles.
2. Make individual test runs in specific chamber on replicate specimens only.
Note2:- If there is not sufficient material to provide three standardsize specimens, run the test with two specimens rather than adding a third specimen from another fabric, since there may be a strong interaction between fabrics, which will result in misleading results in misleading results. Test run with one or two specimens while not strictly comparable with standard test, are considered more indicative than tests that include more than one fabric type.
3. Fit a cork liner that has not been used previously on the side facing the rotor blades around the inner surfaced of a cleaned test chamber. The liner must fit snugly. To eliminate any tendency for the liner to rotor tape the outside edge of the liner at the butt joint to the chamber wall with a short piece or 22mm (1-in ) wide masking tape.
4. Place three specimens, all from the same sample (Note2) and about 25 mg of 5 mm (0.2-in) gray-dyed cotton fiber into the test chamber. (One 5mm long section of 5300-tex (75grain) sliver weighs approximately 25 mg.)
5. Place the end cover on the chamber, and set the timer for a running time of 30 min.
6. Start the testing machine by turning the motor switch to “on” and pushing the “start” button. Also, push the button to start the air flow at the same time (Note3).
7. In the course of the rum, check each test chamber at frequent intervals. If a specimen hangs up (wedges around the impeller without tumbling), or jams, or lies on the bottom or side of the chamber without movement, shut off the air, stop the machine, remove the face plate, and free the specimen. Record on the data sheet any hang-ups or other abnormal behavior of the specimens.
8. After each 30+ 1-min run, remove each specimen and clean off the excess of cotton that is not actually entangled in pills, by means of a home canister type vacuum cleaner with a soft brush attachment. Also, vacuum clean the test chamber.
9. Repeat the procedure prescribed in 10.4 through 10.8 for each additional 30 min of testing time, adding another 25mg of 5-mm (0.2 – in) gray-dyed cotton fiber into the chamber for each additional 30 min test, to obtain ratings after 60, 90, etc., min. Replace cork liners that have been used for 1 hr on each side.
10. Evaluate the specimens subjectively as directed in Section(Evaluation of Specimens).
Note3:-The use of air injection with all fabrics, woven or knitted has been found to significantly reduce the number of fabric hang ups or jams which occur during testing.
Note4:- Depending on the nature of the material under test, running times of other than 30 min may be more appropriate for evaluating the pilling tendencies of fabrics; for example, 10, 20, and 30 min may be more indicative for certain knit or soft woven fabrics.
11. When a hang up has been observed in a run, clean the impeller blade to remove adhering particles before proceeding with the remainder of the test. After ever hour of machine running time, remove the liner and clean the impeller by wiping with a cloth wetted with a solution of synthetic detergent in water, acetone, or MEK.
12. Check the operation of the pilling tester with one or more standard fabrics of known pilling resistance as follows: If the equipment is in constant use, check the tester at least once a week. If testing is done infrequently, check the equipment each time it is used. Check, also when test results appear questionable, or following a change in test equipment such as the use of anew shipment of cork liners.
13. Testing fabrics with silicone or other fugitive finishes, may contaminate the cork liner and consequently alter pilling results. To determine the effect of such finishes, a subsequent test should be made on a standard fabric of known pilling performance using the contaminated liner. Both the results of test and standard fabric should be reported.
14. The only method found to cope with this problem in the laboratory is to make a subsequent test using the used liner surface (on which the silicone treated fabric was tested) with a standard fabric of known pilling history. If the liner being checked has been contaminated, the pilling level on the standard rating fabric will be lower. Both results should be reported. Similar effect may be produced by other “fugitive” finishes so that the liner should be checked after tests on material with “unknown” finishes.
EVALUATION OF SPECIMENS :
1. Using the ASTM photographic pilling standards or other suitable photographic or fabric standards agreed upon by all interested parties, and the apparatus for fabric evaluation, or other suitable viewing cabinet, subjectively rate the face ( as indicated by the markings) of each specimen after the respective tumbling times using the following scale:
5 - No Pilling
4 – Slight Pilling
3 – Moderate Pilling
2 – Severe Pilling
1 – Very Severe Pilling
When the appearance of a test specimen falls between that of two rating standards, assign the half value, for example 3.5, 2.5 etc.
Note5:- The ASTM Photographic standards the apparatus for viewing the specimens, and a minimum of two grades for rating specimen shall be used in referee situations.
2. Check the pilled specimen for non uniformity of pilling. If the pills are concentrated in any one strip in either fabric direction, or in any one portion of the specimen report this condition. It indicates that different yarns may have been used in making the fabric being tested.
3. Check the pilled specimen for evidence of irregular tumbling. If any specimens show a high concentration of pills in a general line across the fabric not parallel to either fabrics direction, assume a specimens hang-up for one or more periods during the test. Discard these results and repeat the test with new specimens.
4. Evaluate the fabric for other surface effects such as fuzzing. It is desirable to have a separate set of fabric rating standards of each effect be rated.
REPORT :
1. State that the specimens were tested as directed in Method D 3512. Describe the material or product sampled and the method of sampling used.
2. Report the following information.
1) Ratings of each individual specimen, the average rating of the three specimens from each laboratory sample and whether or not the samples were laundered or dry cleaned.
2) For those specimens washed before testing, laundering conditions used,
3) If the fabric was dry cleaned before testing, conditions used,
4) Running times, and
5) Type of viewing apparatus and photographic standard used.
PRECISION AND BIAS :
1. Inter laboratory Test Data- An inter laboratory test was conducted in 1970 with 14 laboratories testing different fabrics using the Random Tumble Pilling Test Procedure. The test results showed that those fabrics average ratings less than or equal to 2.0 or greater than equal to 4.0 had high interlaboratory agreement and those fabric with average ratings between 2.0 and 4.0 had interlaboratory agreement.
2. Bias – No justifiable statement on the bias of Testing Method D3512 for testing pilling resistance and other related surface changes of textile material can be made true values of the properties cannot be established by accepted referee method.
INDEXING TERMS :
This standard is indexed under the following terms pilling and appearance.

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